Separated Structural Subdivisions
*Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of sound, ultrasound and infrasound (all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids). The application of acoustics in technology is called acoustical engineering.
*An aircraft is a vehicle, which is able to fly through the Earth's atmosphere or through any other atmosphere. Rocket vehicles are not aircraft if they are not supported by the surrounding air. All the human activity which surrounds aircraft is called aviation.
*Applied Mathematics is a branch of mathematics that concerns itself with the mathematical techniques typically used in the application of mathematical knowledge to other domains.
*Applied Physics is a general term for physics which is intended for a particular technological or practical use.
*Applied Systems Analysis is an interdisciplinary approach that focuses on how complex projects should be designed and managed. Issues, such as logistics, the coordination of different teams, and automatic control of machinery become more difficult when dealing with large, complex projects.
*Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e.g. chemistry and physics), with mathematics, to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms. In addition to producing useful materials, chemical engineering is also concerned with pioneering valuable new materials and techniques, an important form of research and development.
*Computer science (or computing science) is the study and the science of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems.
*Computer Engineering (or Computer Systems Engineering or Information Systems Engineering) encompasses broad areas of both electrical engineering and computer science. Computer engineers are engineers who have training in the areas of software design and hardware-software integration. In turn, they focus less on power electronics and physics than do electrical engineers.
*Ecology(from Greek oikos, "house(hold)"; and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of the distribution and abundance of life and the interactions between organisms and their natural environment.
*Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. A definition that captures much of modern economics is that of Lionel Robbins in a 1932 essay: "the science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses.”
*Electronics refers to the flow of charge (moving electrons) through nonmetal conductors (mainly semiconductors), whereas electrical refers to the flow of charge through metal conductors.
*Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and behavior of inorganic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds except the myriad organic compounds (compounds containing C-H bonds), which are the subjects of organic chemistry. The distinction between the two disciplines is far from absolute, and there is much overlap, most importantly in the sub-discipline of organometallic chemistry.
*The electrical power industry is commonly split up into four processes. These are electricity generation such as a power station, electric power transmission, electricity distribution and electricity retailing. In many countries, electric power companies own the whole infrastructure from generating stations to transmission and distribution infrastructure.
*Energy conservation is the practice of decreasing the quantity of energy used. It may be achieved through efficient energy use, in which case energy use is decreased while achieving a similar outcome, or by reduced consumption of energy services. Energy conservation may result in increase of financial capital, environmental value, national security, personal security, and human comfort. Individuals and organizations that are direct consumers of energy may want to conserve energy in order to reduce energy costs and promote economic security. Industrial and commercial users may want to increase efficiency and thus maximize profit.
*Marketing is a business term referring to the promotion of products, advertising, pricing, distribution channels, and branding. The term developed from the original meaning which referred literally to going to market, as in shopping, or going to a market to sell goods or services.
*Management in business and human organization activity is simply the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resource encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources.
*Mechanical engineering technology is an application of physical principles and current technological developments to the creation of useful machinery and operation design. Technologies such as solid models may be used as the basis for finite element analysis (FEA) and / or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of the design. Through the application of computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), the models may also be used directly by software to create "instructions" for the manufacture of objects represented by the models, through computer numerically-controlled (CNC) machining or other automated processes, without the need for intermediate drawings.
*Medical engineering is an application of engineering principles and techniques to the medical field. It combines the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences to help improve patient health care and the quality of life of individuals.Much of the work in biomedical engineering consists of research and development, covering an array of fields: bioinformatics, medical imaging, image processing, physiological signal processing, biomechanics, biomaterials and bioengineering, systems analysis, 3-D modeling.
*Metrology (from Ancient Greek metron (study of) is the science of measurement...ization enabled gauging devices to be effectively used.
*Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an ore body, vein or (coal) seam.
*Physics (Greek: physics – φύσις) is the science of matter and its motion. It is the natural science which examines basic concepts such as force, energy, mass, and charge. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the world and universe behave.
*Organic chemistry is a discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as well as phosphorus, silicon and sulfur. Synthetic organic chemistry is an applied science as it borders engineering, the "design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes". One important property of carbon in organic chemistry is that it can form certain compounds, the individual molecules of which are capable of attaching themselves to one another, thereby forming a chain or a network. The process is called polymerization and the chains or networks polymers, while the source compound is a monomer. Two main groups of polymers exist: those artificially manufactured are referred to as industrial polymers, or synthetic polymers, and those naturally occurring as biopolymers.
*Power engineering, also called power systems engineering, is a subfield of electrical engineering that deals with the generation, transmission and distribution of electric power as well as the electrical devices connected to such systems including generators, motors and transformers.
*Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of literature or information – the activity of making information available for public view. In some cases authors may be their own publishers, meaning: originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver and display the content.
*The study of new Semiconductor devices and related technology is considered a branch of physics whereas the design and construction of electronic circuits to solve practical problems comes under electronics engineering.
*Social sciences comprise academic disciplines concerned with the study of the social life of human groups and individuals including anthropology, communication studies, criminology, economics, geography, history, political science, psychology, social studies, and sociology.
*Telecommunication is the assisted transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. Telecommunication typically involves the use of electronic transmitters such as the telephone, television, radio or computer.
* BD means Bachelor Degree; SD means Specialist Degree; MD means Master Degree; PHD means Doctor of Philosophy Degree; DSc means Doctor of Science Degree.
*A bachelor's degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for four years. Today, the most common undergraduate degrees given are the Bachelor of Arts (Artium Baccalaureus) (BA, AB) and the Bachelor of Science (Scientiæ Baccalaureus) (BS, BSc, SB, ScB). The Bachelor of Engineering (Baccalaureus in Arte Ingeniaria) degree or the Bachelor of Applied Science degree is a professional degree awarded to students who have completed the three or four year course of study in engineering.
*A master of arts (Magister Artium) and master of science (magister scientiæ) degrees are the basic degree types in most subjects, and they may be course-based, research-based, or (more typically) a mixture of the two. A dissertation may or may not be required, depending on the program. There are also degrees of the same level, such as engineer's degrees, which have different names for historical reasons. Admission to a master's program requires holding a bachelor's degree.
*Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph.D. or PhD for the Latin Philosophiæ Doctor, meaning "teacher of philosophy", is an advanced academic degree awarded by universities. In many countries it has become the highest degree one can earn, and applies to graduates in a wide array of disciplines in the sciences and humanities. The Ph.D. has become a requirement for a career as a university professor or researcher in many fields. In addition, many Ph.D. graduates go on to careers in government departments, non-governmental organizations, or in the private sector.
*In the former Soviet Union and post-Soviet states, and in some of the former Socialist countries, the status of Doctor Nauk literally means "Doctor of Sciences", but is a post-doctoral degree and has no American equivalent but does have a Western equivalent in the degree of Doctor of Science.