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* BD means Bachelor Degree; SD means Specialist Degree; MD means Master Degree; PHD means Doctor of Philosophy Degree; DSc means Doctor of Science Degree.
*A bachelor's degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for four years. Today, the most common undergraduate degrees given are the Bachelor of Arts (Artium Baccalaureus) (BA, AB) and the Bachelor of Science (Scientiæ Baccalaureus) (BS, BSc, SB, ScB). The Bachelor of Engineering (Baccalaureus in Arte Ingeniaria) degree or the Bachelor of Applied Science degree is a professional degree awarded to students who have completed the three or four year course of study in engineering.
*A master of arts (Magister Artium) and master of science (magister scientiæ) degrees are the basic degree types in most subjects, and they may be course-based, research-based, or (more typically) a mixture of the two. A dissertation may or may not be required, depending on the program. There are also degrees of the same level, such as engineer's degrees, which have different names for historical reasons. Admission to a master's program requires holding a bachelor's degree.
*Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph.D. or PhD for the Latin Philosophiæ Doctor, meaning "teacher of philosophy", is an advanced academic degree awarded by universities. In many countries it has become the highest degree one can earn, and applies to graduates in a wide array of disciplines in the sciences and humanities. The Ph.D. has become a requirement for a career as a university professor or researcher in many fields. In addition, many Ph.D. graduates go on to careers in government departments, non-governmental organizations, or in the private sector.
*In the former Soviet Union and post-Soviet states, and in some of the former Socialist countries, the status of Doctor Nauk literally means "Doctor of Sciences", but is a post-doctoral degree and has no American equivalent but does have a Western equivalent in the degree of Doctor of Science.